Two Coats Selected Gallery Guide: November 2019

Morgan Lehman: Carolanna Parlato, Cinema, 2019, acrylic and pouring medium on canvas, 48 x 60 inches

Contributed by Sharon Butler / Hello November! There are plenty of shows opening this month, and today (November 15) is also the fifteenth day of the 2019 Two Coats of Paint year-end fundraising campaign. This year we’re requesting funding to continue our work supporting artists and arts organizations through 2020. You might think of your contribution as an annual subscription. We hope to generate enough revenue to offset rising costs for web hosting, design, the newsletter, and editorial help, and also to compensate our contributors for more fine pieces. If you value what we do at Two Coats of Paint, please consider supporting us for another year. New limited-edition canvas tote bags are being screen-printed and will be given to the first 100 readers to contribute $150 or more. Thanks in advance for your generous tax-deductible contributions –> Please click here to contribute.

Brooklyn

Kentler International Drawing Space / Selections from the Kentler Flatfiles by David Houston / 353 Van Brunt St., Brooklyn, NY / November 9 to December 15
Cathouse Proper / Renée Cox: Roots Returned / 524 Court Street, Brooklyn, NY / closes November 24
Ortega y Gasset Projects / Everywhere is a Negative Mirror: Natessa Amin and Susan Klein / 363 3rd Ave., Brooklyn, NY / closes November 17
Ground Floor Gallery / Message in a Bottle: An Immersive Solo Exhibition Featuring Karen Mainenti / 343 5th Street, Brooklyn, NY / THE CONSTRUCTIONS: A Complete Fabrication, Curated by John Gagné / opens November 27
A.I.R. Gallery / Between the Lines: Carolyn Martin; Twist, Glide, Shine: Alisa Henriquez; Machine Memory + Motherboards: Simone Paterson / 155 Plymouth St., Brooklyn, NY / closes November 10 / Ann Pachner, Caroline Wayne, Lauren Simkin Berke / November 15 to December 22
Minus Space / Sonya Kelliher-Combs: Mark / 16 Main Street, Suite A, Brooklyn, NY / November 2 to December 21
Safe Gallery / Family Show / 1004 Metropolitan Ave, Brooklyn, NY / closes December 15
The Royal / New Thick / 400 B South 2nd, Brooklyn, NY / October 25 to November 17
Platform Project Space / Strange Truth / 20 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY / closes November 23
Century Pictures / Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster / 1329 Willoughby Ave, Brooklyn, NY / closes December 7
Theodore: Art  / Houses in Motion: Sharon Butler, Laurie Fendrich, Richard Kalina, Gary Petersen, Eric Santoscoy – Mckillip / 56 Bogart Street, Brooklyn, NY / closes December 8
Amos Eno Gallery / Mimi Oritsky: Soft Wet to Hard Dry / 56 Bogart St, Brooklyn / closes November 17 / Plus one / November 22 to December 21
Cavalho Park / Paradeisos; Yulia Iosilzon / 112 Waterbury St., Brooklyn, NY / closes November 24
Fisher Parrish Gallery / Sundown Town: Alexander Harrison / 238 Wilson Ave, Brooklyn, NY / November 1 to December 15
TSA: Tiger Strikes Asteroid / Precursor to Expanded Dialogue, curated by Vincent Como / 1329 Willoughby Ave, #2A, Brooklyn, NY / closes November 17 / The Flatfile, Year 7 / November 22 to December 15
Transmitter / Yin Ho & Theo Mullen / 1329 Willoughby Avenue, 2A, Brooklyn, NY / closes November 17
Microscope / Marni Kotak: Dancing in the Oval Office / 1329 Willoughby Avenue, Brooklyn, NY / closes November 24

The Royal: Erin Loree in “New Thick”
Derek Keller: Karl Wirsum, Untitled Study for Dancing Hare Toddy Dancing Kong Tamari, 1980, ink on paper, 18 x 24 inches

Queens

Sculpture Space NYC-Projects / France Goneau / 4721 35th Street, LIC, NY / November 1 to December 7
Key Projects  / Asterism: David Ambrose, Paula Overbay, Kit Warren / 4129 41st Street #2G, Sunnyside, NY / November 2 to November 17
Mrs. / Sarah Palmer: Outs and Ins / 60 – 40 56th Drive, Maspeth, NY / November 16, 2019 to January 11, 2020

Monica King Contemporary: Gregory Coates, installation view, Tribeca
Postmasters: Canyon Castator, installation view, Tribeca
Bortolami: Robert Bordo

Tribeca and below

Bortolami / Mary Obering: Window Series, 1973 / 39 Walker Street, New York, NY / closes November 9 / Robert Bordo: crackup (crackdown), and sotto voce / November 15 to December 20
CANADA / Marc Hundley: Under the Net; Lily Ludlow: New Paintings / 60 Lispenard Street, New York, NY / November 9 to December 14
James Cohan / 20 Years / 48 Walker St., New York, NY / November 1 to December 20
Denny Dimin / Dana Sherwood: Horses for the Trees / 39 Lispenard Street
New York, NY / November 11 to December 7
Hionas Gallery / Amanda Church and John Franklin: Body Object / 356 Broadway, New York, NY / closes November 2
Monica King Contemporary / Gregory Coates: Actual and Implied / 39 Lispenard Street, East Entrance, New York, NY / closes December 7
Andrew Kreps Gallery / Roe Ethridge: Sanctuary 2 / 22 Cortlandt Alley, New York, NY / closes November 2 / Pádraig Timoney: A Silver Key Can Open An Iron Lock Somewhere / November 8 to December 21
Postmasters / Canyon Castator: Infidel / 54 Franklin St, New York, NY / closes November 30
Kerry Schuss / Josh Tonsfeldt / 73 Leonard Street, New York, NY / November 8 to December 21
Andrew Kreps Gallery / Roe Ethridge: Sanctuary 2 / 22 Cortlandt Alley, New York, NY / closes November 2 / Pádraig Timoney: A Silver Key Can Open An Iron Lock Somewhere / November 8 to December 21

CANADA: Lily Ludlow
Bortolami Gallery: Mary Obering Installation View
1969 Gallery: Alina Perez, 22Luna Moth22, 2019, charcoal and pastel on paper, 38 x 50 inches
Derek Eller: JJ Manford, in the Project Room
Foxy Productions: Anna Glantz, Grown Woman (detail), 2019, oil on canvas, diptych, 88 x 127 inches
Freight + Volume: Erika Ranee, Mothership, 2019, acrylic, shellac, spray paint and paper collage on canvas, 30h x 40w inches

Lower East Side

47 Canal  / Miffed Blue Return: Yason Banal, Sky Hopinka and Cici Wu / 291 Grand, 2nd floor, New York, NY / November 1 to December 21
1969 Gallery / Routine Malfunction, co-curated by Coady Brown and Pat Phillips / 103 Allen St., New York, NY / November 1 to November 10 / Give It To Me Good:Cristina BanBan, Keiran Brennan Hinton, Coady Brown and Anthony Cudahy / November 17 to December 22
601 Artspace / Every day is another day: Regine Basha curates Nina Katchadourian in dialogue with Vija Celmins, Rivane Neuenschwander, Gabriel Orozco, Tom Friedman, Jonathan Monk, Robert Therrien
and Fischli & Weiss / 88 Eldridge St. New York, NY  / closes December 1
Miguel Abreu / Encore (36 Orchard) / closes December 8 / External Fixation: Alexander Carver (88 Eldridge) / November 3 to December 22 / New York, NY
Brennan & Griffin (LES) / E’wao Kagoshima / 122 Norfolk Street, New York, NY / closes December 22
Bureau / Tom Holmes: Real Tree / 178 Norfolk St, New York, NY / closes November 3 / Kyung-Me & Harry Gould Harvey IV / November to January
Betty Cuningham Gallery / Rudolf De Crignis / 11 Rivington St, New York, NY / closes November 24
Andrew Edlin Gallery / Joe Coleman and the Shadow Self / 212 Bowery, New York, NY / closes December 7
Chapter NY / Ann Greene Kelly / 249 East Houston St., New York, NY / November to December
Derek Eller (LES) / Karl Wirsum / 300 Broome Street New York, NY / closes November 10 / Nicole Cherubini , and JJ Manford in the Project Room / November 14 to December 22
Downs and Ross / Friends: Alan Belcher / 96 Bowery, 2nd Floor, New York / November 8 to December 22
Equity Gallery / The Heart Is A Lonely Hunter: Queer Abstraction, with Justin Cloud, Paul Michael Graves, Hermes Payrhuber, Jason Rondinelli, Wade Schaming, and Julie Torres. Curated by Christopher Stout and Eric Sutphin / 245 Broome St, New York, NY / closes November 2 / It Could Be you: Portraiture in a Constructed World / November 14 to December 7
Fierman / Dapper Bruce Laffite: 45 Don’t Have Love for Me / 127 Henry St, New York, NY / closes December 1
Foxy Productions / Anna Glantz: Cyclops / 2 East Broadway, 200, New York, NY / closes November 17
Freight + Volume / Johnston Foster: Bone Pendulum in Motley / 97 Allen St, New York, NY / closes November 11 / Erika Ranee: Dear God, / November 14 to January 5
Frosch & Portmann / Magnolia Laurie: Again and Again / 53 Stanton St., New York, NY / closes November 24
James Fuentes  / John McAllister / 55 Delancy St, New York, NY / closes November 3 / Lee Quiñones: Language Barriers / November 6 to December 20
Front Room Gallery / FR:20, Part II, Figurative vs Abstract in Contemporary Art / 48 Hester Street, New York, NY / closes November 24
Galerie Richard / Rainer Gross: Contact Paintings / 121 Orchard St, New York, NY / closes November 2 / Jeremy Thomas / November 6 to December 21
High Noon / Amanda Church: Recliners / 106 Eldridge St., New York, NY / closes November 10 / Jill Levine: Now / November 14 to December 22
Klaus von Nichtssagend  / Holly Coulis / 54 Ludlow St., New York, NY / closes December 8
Kristen Lorello / Ping Zheng / 195 Chrystie St., Lobby, New York, NY / closes November 9 / Florencia Escudero / November 14 to January 18
Lesley Heller / Nicole Awai: Envisioning the Liquid Land; Rachelle Dang: Uncertain Haven / 54 Orchard St., New York, NY / closes December 21
LMAK projects / Tommy Kha: Return to Sender; Dear Human: Paper Love; Bill Albertini: Pipe Dream System: Summer Catalog / 298 Grand St., New York, NY / closes November 3 / Stellar Collisions: Keith Lemley / closes December 22
Lyles & King / Arghavan Khosravi: Tightrope Walking the Red Lines / Forsyth St., New York, NY / closes November 10
Marinaro / Johannes VanDerBeek: Nine Door Room / 1 Oliver Street, New York, NY / closes November 17 / Ian Tweedy: Grund / November 20 to January 19
Magenta Plains / Ebecho Muslimova: Traps! / 94 Allen St., New York, NY / closes December 18
McKenzie Fine Art / Pete Schulte: Properties of Dust and Smoke, pt.2 / 55 Orchard St., New York, NY / closes December 21
Nathalie Karg / Mario Schifano: The Cult of Television Images / 291 Grand St. New York, NY / November 6 to December 15
Pierogi  / Elliot Green / 155 Suffolk St., New York, NY / closes November 10 / Jonathan Schipper / November 16 to January 12
SFA Projects / 131 Christie Street, New York, NY
Signs and Symbols / Carol Szymanski: He Said I Thought / 102 Forsyth St., New York, NY / closes November 17 / Benoît Platéus: Scissors, hangers and other batteries / November 21 to December 22
Sperone Westwater / David Lynch: Squeaky Flies in the Mud / 257 Bowery, New York, NY / November 1 to December 21
Steven Harvey Fine Arts Projects / Shadows: Sangram Majumdar, Giordanne Salley, Gwen Strahle, Bob Thompson, Steven Harvey / 208 Forsyth Street, New York, NY / closes November 17
Tibor de Nagy / Sarah Mceneaney: Trestletown Stomping Ground / 11 Rivington St, New York, NY / closes November 17 / Jesse Hurry: Radical Solitude / November 21 to January 12

Lesley Heller: Nicole Awai, Sultry Risktaker, 2019; acrylic paint, resin, graphite, nail polish, plastic, shells, crystalline solids, glass beads, mirrored glass, and paper; 50 x 38 inches
Peter Freeman, Inc: Mel Bochner, Ass Backwards ​(installation), 2019, oil on velvet, 30 x 90 inches

Soho

Geary Contemporary / Redaction Order: Johannah Herr; A Part of Us: Yvette Mayorga / 185 Varick St., New York, NY / November 7 to December 20
Team Gallery (Grand) / Collin Leitch: Camera Rider; Tyler Dobson: To Two Too / 83 Grand St., New York, NY / closes November 9 / Suzanne McClelland: MUTE; Andrew Jilka: Meditations / November 14 to December 21
Peter Freeman, Inc. / Mel Bochner: Exasperations / 140 Grand St, New York, NY / November 5 to December 21
Owen James Gallery / Chiaozza: Cascades & Crescendos / 59 Wooster St, 2nd floor, New York, NY /  closes November 2 / The Trunk Show / November 15 to December 21

Noho/East Village

The Hole / Tara Subkoff; Adam Parker Smith / 312 Bowery, New York, NY / closes November 17
Turn Gallery  / Jamie Romanet / 37 East 1st St., New York, NY
Karma / Alex Da Corte: Marigolds / 188 E 2nd St., New York, NY / closes November 3 / Matthew Wong: Blue / November 8 to December 22
Eva Presenhuber / Douglas Gordon / 39 Great Jones St., New York, NY / November 2 to December 15
Zurcher Gallery  / Regina Bogat: Ascension / 33 Bleecker St., New York, NY / November 6 to December 21

Vito Schnabel Projects: Francesco Clemente, India II, 2019, Oil on canvas, 96 x 92 inches
Hermine Ford installation view at New York Studio School

The Village

Vito Schnabel Projects / Francesco Clemente: India / 43 Clarkson St., New York, NY / November 8 to January 17
New York Studio School / Hermine Ford: Toward the Beginning / 8 W 8th St., New York, NY / closes December 1

Andrew Kreps Gallery: Moshekwa Langa, The Love Letter VII Kekana, 2019, mixed media on paper, 63.58 x 47.58 inches
Rick Wester Fine Art: Cat Balco
Hollis Taggart: Jason Stopa in “ Breaking the Frame”
The Painting Center: Claire McConaughy. Also on view: Mona Brody in the Project Room
Kathryn Markel: Ky Anderson, Wind, 2019, pigment, acrylic and oil on raw canvas, 54 x 64 inches
Berry Campbell: Dan Christensen, Raising Red , 1969, acrylic on canvas, 56 x 71 inches
DC Moore: Robert DeNiro, Sr., Pink and Salmon Houses, 1975, oil on fiberboard, 30 x 28 inches

Chelsea

Petzel  / Walead Beshty / 456 W. 18th St. New York, NY / closes December 14
Jane Lombard Gallery / Carmen Neely: Not A Tourist / 518 West 19th St., New York, NY / November 7 to December 14
David Zwirner / Jason Rhoades / 533 West 19th St, New York, NY / closes December 7
Garth Greenan Gallery / Howardena Pindell: Autobiography / 545 W 20th Street, New York, NY / closes December 7
Kathryn Markel Fine Arts / Laura Fayer: Dream Logic; Ky Anderson / 529 W 20th St, Suite 6W, New York, NY / closes November 30
Elizabeth Harris / Pat Passlof / 529 W 20th St., New York, NY / November 2 to December 21
Tanya Bonakdar Gallery / Nathalie Djurberg & Hans Berg: One Last Trip to the Underworld / 521 West 21st St., New York, NY / November 1 to December 20
Miles McEnery / Patrick Wilson / 520 W 21st St, New York, NY / closes November 9 / Heather Gwen Martin; David Huffman / November 14 to December 21
DC Moore Gallery / Robert Kushner: By My Window; Stephen Mueller: Gateless Gate / 535 W 22nd St, New York, NY / closes November 9 / Duane Michals: Mischievous Eye; Robert De Niro Sr.: Intensity in Paint / November 14 to December 21
Hauser & Wirth / Rashid Johnson: The Hikers; Mike Kelley: Timeless Painting / 548 West 22nd St., New York, NY / November 12 to January 25
P.P.O.W. / Sanam Khatibi: An hour before the Devil fell / 535 West 22nd Street, 3rd Floor New York, NY / closes November 16 / Adam Putnam / November 14 to December 21 / Hunter Reynolds: From Drag to Dervish / November 21 to December 21
Sikkema Jenkins & Co.  / Vik Muniz / 530 W 22nd St., New York, NY / closes November 16 / Zipora Fried: As the Ground Turns Solid / November 21 to January 11
Asya Geisberg Gallery / Rebecca Morgan: Town and Country / 537 W 23rd St., New York, NY / closes November 2 / Trish Tillman: Shore Leave / November 7 to December 20
Lehmann Maupin (24th Street) / Hernan Bas: TIME LIFE / 501 West 24th St., New York, NY / November 7 to January 4
Anna Zorina / Alexandria Smith: In Praise of Shadows / 532 West 24 St., New York, NY / closes November 23
Fredericks & Freiser / Gary Panter / 536 W 24th St., New York, NY / November 14 to January 11
Berry Campbell / Dan Christensen: Early Spray Paintings ( 1960s) / 530 West 24th St., New York, NY / closes November 9 / Larry Zox: Open Series (1972-1975) / November 14 to December 20
Jack Shainman / Andres Serrano: Torture / 513 W 20th St. and 524 W 24th, New York, NY / closes November 4 / Meleko Mokgosi: The social revolution of our time cannot take its poetry from the past but only from the poetry of the future. and Pan-African Pulp / closes December 21
Lisson Gallery (10th Ave) / Anish Kapoor / W 24th St., New York, NY / closes December 20
Susan Inglett Gallery / Hope Gangloff / 522 W 24th St., New York, NY / closes November 30
Luhring Augustine / Philip Taaffe / 531 W. 24th St., New York, NY / November 2 to December 21 
Yossi Milo / Simen Johan: Conspiracy of Ravens / 245 Tenth Ave., New York, NY / closes December 7
Sears Peyton / Jen Wink Hays: Wondrous Pondeorus / 210 Eleventh Ave., Suite 802, New York, NY / closes December 14
Winston Wachter / Tony Scherman: Pictures from Rome / 530 West 25th St., New York, NY / opens November 7
Nancy Margolis Gallery / Eva Hild / 523 West 25th St., New York, NY / November 7 to January 4
CUE Art Foundation / Sarah Amos: Chalk Lines / 137 West 25th St., New York, NY 10001 / closes December 11
Pace / Li Songsong: One of my Ancestors; Yto Barrada: Paste Papers / 540 West 25th St., New York, NY / closes December 21
Blain Southern New York / Rachel Howard: L’appel du vide / 547 West 25th St., New York, NY / closes November 2
Greene Naftali (Ground Floor) / Peter Halley: Hetertopia II / 508 West 26th St., New York, NY / November 6 to December 20
Greene Naftali (8th Floor) / Konrad Lueg / 508 West 26th St., New York, NY / closes November 2
Rick Wester Fine Art / My Exploding Stars: Cat Balco / 526 West 26th St., Suite 417, New York, NY / November 7 to January 25
Thomas Erben / Mike Cloud: Tears in Abstraction / 526 West 26th St., 4th Floor, New York, NY / closes November 2
Hollis Taggart / Threshold of Perceptibility: The Colorfield Paintings of Leon Berkowitz / 521 West 26th Street, New York, NY / closes November 2 / Space Poetry: The Action Paintings of Michael West / November 7 to December 21 / Breaking the Frame: Jason Stopa, Leah Guadagnoli, Dana James, Justine Hill, and Eric Shaw / December 14
Morgan Lehman / Elisa Johns: Roam / 526 West 26th St., Suite 419, New York, NY / closes November 2 / Carolanna Parlato: Catch and Release / November 7 to December 14
Alexander Gray Associates / Melvin Edwards: Painted Sculpture / 510 West 26 Street, New York NY / closes December 14
David Krut Projects, New York / Maja Maljević: The Silence of the Change / 526 West 26th St., 8th Floor, Suite 816, New York, NY 10001 / closes December 20
CG Boerner / Tyler Bright Hilton: The Minmei Trilogy part 2: Minmei Madelynne Pryor on the Trail of a Liar / 526 West 26th Street, Rm 304 / New York, NY / closes November 22
The Painting Center  / Claire McConaughy: Not So Far Away; Mona Brody: Distancing / 547 West 27th St., Suite 500, New York, NY / closes November 23
Casey Kaplan / Jordan Casteel: The Practice of Freedom / 121 W. @7th St., New York, NY / November 1 to December 7
Hesse Flatow / Table Manner: Anthony Iacono, Sacha Ingber, and Caitlin MacBride / 508 W 28th St, New York, NY / closes November 23
Carter Burden / Margie Steinman and Leslie Shaw Zadoian; Grace Wapner; Vicki Khuzami / 548 West 28th Street, #534, New York, NY / closes November 13 / On the Wall: Stephen Spiller / November 21 to December 18
ODETTA / Joanne Mattera: From Dawn to Dusk / 269 11th Avenue, Lobby 4, 7th Fl / closes November 16 / Heavy Metal / November 19 to January 4
David Nolan Gallery / Wars: 20th and 21st Centuries / 527 W 29thSt., New York, NY / closes November 2
Monya Rowe / Justin Liam O’Brien: Losing in the Form of Darkness / 224 West 30th  St., New York, NY / November 1 to January 4

Kristen Lorello: Ping Zheng In the Blue Light, 2019, oil on stikc paper, 25.34 x 19.34 inches

Midtown, etc.

Anton Kern / Richard Hughes: The Great Perhaps/ 16 East 55th St., New York, NY / November 7 to December 21, 2019
ChaShaMa / A Place For Space: Quinn Guarino / 1 Brooklyn Bridge Park
Brooklyn / November 10 to December 3 / Riding the Light: Ari Lankin / 1133 Avenue of the Americas – Lobby Manhattan / closes November 15

Upper West Side

Susan Eley Fine Art/ Space of Belonging: New Work by Angela A’Court / 46 West 90th Street, Second Floor, New York, NY / November 14 to December 20

Upper East Side

Skarstedt / George Condo: Paintings & Works on Paper / 19 East 64th St., New York, NY / November 11 to December 21
Bookstein Projects / Olive Ayhens: Urbanites and Ur-Beasts / 60 E 66th St., 3rd Floor, New York, NY / closes December 20
Blum & Poe / Henry Taylor: Niece Cousin Kin Look How Long It’s Been / 19 E 66 th St., New York, NY / closes December 21
Petzel Gallery / Georg Harold / 35 E 67th St., New York, NY / November 6 to December 20
David Zwirner / Bill Traylor / 34 E 69th St, New York, NY / closes February 15
Ceysson & Bénétière / Alexander Nolan / 956 Madison Ave., New York, NY / November 6 to December 7
Johannes Vogt Gallery / Madeline Pfull / 958 Madison Ave., New York, NY / closes December 7
Gagosian / Gerhard Richter Prints / 976 Madison Ave., New York, NY / November 8 to December 21
Gagosian / Birth Machine Baby: H.R. Giger and Mark Prent / Park and 75, New York, NY / November 5 to December 21
Michael Werner / Sigmar Polke: Objects: Real and Imagined / 4 E 77th St., New York, NY / closes November 16
Almine Rech Gallery / Line Up / 39 E 78th St., 2nd Floor, New York, NY / closes December 14
Art + Leisure / Bradley Biancardi: Moving Pictures / 1571 Lexington Ave., New York, NY / closes November 10 / Brian Whiteley: Beasts / November 16 to January 5

Bronx

Wave Hill / Figuring the Floral / West 249th Street and Independence Avenue, Bronx, NY / closes December 1

Klaus Gallery: Holly Coulis, Citrus Cherries Juice Pour, 2019, oil on linen, 48 x 60 inches
TheodoreArt: Geometric abstraction in “Houses in Motion,” with Sharon Butler, Laurie Fendrich, Richard Kalina, Gary Petersen, Eric Santoscoy – Mckillip.

NOTE: Galleries who would like their exhibitions considered for inclusion in the next Two Coats Selected Gallery Guide should send a note to ExhibitionsatTCOP@gmail.com. Please include a few jpegs and exhibition info (preferred format: name of gallery/ title of exhibition / address / dates of show).

Related posts:
Looking back: Richard Baker at Tibor de Nagy
Assistants: Connected through circumstance
Amna Asghar: Plumbing orientalism
Hello Instagram: Angela Lane in Berlin

Two Coats of Paint is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. To use content beyond the scope of this license, permission is required.

Tags: , , , ,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *